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Enter the characters you see below Sorry, we just need to make sure you’re not a robot. Jump to navigation Jump to search For the study of rocks and their formation, see Petrology. The lithology of a rock unit is a description of its physical characteristics visible at outcrop, in hand or core samples or with low magnification microscopy, such as colour, texture, grain size, or composition. The naming of a lithology is based on the rock type. The three major rock types are sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic.