As well as these time-varying phenomena, there is a frequency domain ripple that arises in some classes of filter ripple current in capacitors other signal processing networks. Ripple is wasted power, and has many undesirable effects in a DC circuit: it heats components, causes noise and distortion, and may cause digital circuits to operate improperly. Ripple may be reduced by an electronic filter, and eliminated by a voltage regulator. The initial step in AC to DC conversion is to send the AC current through a rectifier.
AC voltage minus the forward voltage of the rectifier diodes. In the case of a SS silicon diode, the forward voltage is 0. Please expand the section to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. Reducing ripple is only one of several principal considerations in power supply filter design.
The filtering of ripple voltage is analogous to filtering other kinds of signals. DC power conversion as well as DC power generation, high voltages and currents or both may be output as ripple. The majority of power supplies are now switched mode. The filtering requirements for such power supplies are much easier to meet owing to the frequency of the ripple waveform being very high. The number of reactive components in a filter is called its order. A common arrangement is to allow the rectifier to work into a large smoothing capacitor which acts as a reservoir. At that point the rectifier conducts again and delivers current to the reservoir until peak voltage is again reached.