The PKC family consists of fifteen isozymes in pkc iota inhibitor. The structure of all PKCs consists of a regulatory domain and a catalytic domain tethered together by a hinge region. The regulatory domain or the amino-teminus of the PKCs contains several shared subregions.
The C1 domain, present in all of the isoforms of PKC has a binding site for DAG as well as non-hydrolysable, non-physiological analogues called phorbol esters. PKCs and even higher when comparing within classes. Another feature of the PKC catalytic region that is essential to the viability of the kinase is its phosphorylation. The conventional and novel PKCs have three phosphorylation sites, termed: the activation loop, the turn motif, and the hydrophobic motif. A multiplicity of functions have been ascribed to PKC. Recurring themes are that PKC is involved in receptor desensitization, in modulating membrane structure events, in regulating transcription, in mediating immune responses, in regulating cell growth, and in learning and memory. These functions are achieved by PKC-mediated phosphorylation of other proteins.
Protein kinase C, activated by tumor promoter phorbol ester, may phosphorylate potent activators of transcription, and thus lead to increased expression of oncogenes, promoting cancer progression, or interfere with other phenomena. Protein kinase C inhibitors, such as ruboxistaurin, may potentially be beneficial in peripheral diabetic nephropathy. Chelerythrine is a natural selective PKC inhibitor. Other naturally occurring PKCIs are miyabenol C, myricitrin, gossypol. The Protein kinase C activator ingenol mebutate, derived from the plant Euphorbia peplus, is FDA-approved for the treatment of actinic keratosis.
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