To Build a Voltage Measure ripple voltage and Measure AC Voltage Using Arduino By himshekhar. AC voltage when measured using a micro controller is a pretty difficult task as the wave gets easily distorted due to numerous noise present in the environment. Therefore for proper design of the hardware is very necessary. A voltage regulator is designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level.
A voltage regulator may be a simple “feed-forward” design or may include negative feedback control loops. A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction. A varying current in the transformer’s primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the core and a varying magnetic field impinging on the secondary winding. The transformer is used for step down purpose because the arduino is capable of reading voltage in the range of 0-5V only. Further the output of the transformer is fed into a voltage divider circuit. The values of resistances is chosen according to your specifications. A bridge rectifier provides full-wave rectification from a two-wire AC input.
The output from the voltage is fed into the diode bridge rectifier IC which gives a rectified full wave which is fed in to the peak rectifier circuit. The output from the bridge rectifier contains a huge amount of ripple. One way to reduce this ripple is to use a filtering capacitor. Consider the full wave rectifier again, but now add a capacitor in parallel with the load .